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The study draws attention to the utility of applying configurational approaches to investigate the influence of complex combinations of organizational supports on school outcomes. The authors compare this approach to more traditional methods that focus on the effects of isolated factors, controlling for each other. The results show that leadership is associated with students' classroom participation via multiple configurations of organizational supports. These configurations are different from the set of organizational supports that are related to an absence of classroom participation.
The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the Teachers College Record, 116(8), May 2014 by Teachers College Record. All rights reserved. © 2014